Türkiye Integratif Terapi ve Integratif Supervizyon Birligi

 

Turkisch Society of Integrative Therapy and Integrative Supervision

in cooperation with

E A G
F P I
Europäische Akademie für psychosoziale Gesundheit - Fritz Perls Institut
Hückeswagen / Germany            http://www.eag-fpi.com

 

INTEGRATIVE THERAPY IN A NUTSHELL –

 

 „Integrative Therapy“: History , Development and Concepts of an Innovative Approach to „Biopsychosocial“. Psychotherapy and Body Oriented Intervention

 

Hilarion G. Petzold, Amsterdam, Düsseldorf, Krems, Paris*

(2001g)

 

Integrative Therapy (IT) was developped at the end of the sixties in Paris by a group of clinicians and researchers – psychologists and medical doctors – under the direction of Univ.-Prof. Dr.Dr.Dr. Hilarion G. Petzold who was later named as one oft „Leitfiguren der Psychotherapie“ (one of the „leading figures of modern psychotherapy“) by the renowned weekly Magazine „Die Zeit“. Petzold, having studied psychology (1963 sqq, PhD 1971) with a clinical orientation, philosophy with M.Foucault and G. Marcel and russian orthodox theology, had a broad interest in therapeutic methods and anthropological problems and thus many friends from mainstream therapy schools and approaches. He gathered a group around him, the members of which were educated in psychoanalysis, behavior therapy, gestalt therapy, body therapy and psychodrama being dissatisfied with the „onesidednesses“ and limitations of their original therapeutic approaches: the behaviorists then were only concerend with „overt“ behavior, the analysts only centered on unconscious conflicts, and the gestaltists on emotions, the body therapists focussed on physical tensions, neglecting the cognitions, the psychodramatists focussed on acting and creative activities. But all these dimensions seemed to be important to treat patients and to help people in difficulties and suffering. This made Petzold seek for common and divergent concepts in theory and – inspired by S. Garfield a.o. for common und divergent factors in practice. Trained and experienced in a variety of approaches he began to experiment with „active techniques“ – like Ferenczi in whose tradition he made his trainig analysis V. N. Iljine -, methods to mobilize regressed and depressed patients. He went to America to work with Moreno, with Fritz Perls and to Oslo for body analysis with the Reich-pupil Ola Raknes becoming a teaching therapists in these approches but staying in the same time an academic psychologist, behavioral oriented researcher and clinician in Paris and later in Düsseldorf, where he studied medicine and orthopaedagogics/defectology (1971sqq.). Over the time he developped methods and treatment techniques which were bringing together the most effective and sound approaches from the traditional psychotherapies and this not as an „eclectic mix“ but on the ground of a schooltranscending „integrative and differential“ theory that he keeps developing since the beginnig of the seventies when he and some of his colleagues (Johanna Sieper PhD, Hildegund Heinl MD a.o) founded the „Fritz Perls Institute for Integrative Therapy“ (FPI). They took the name not beause it was an intstitute centered on Gestalt Therapy but because Perls was the first, who originally wanted to establish a method-encompassing therapy (a project he unfortunately soon gave up). The FPI-Institute grew rapidly and soon became famous because it introduced Gestalt therapy (e.g. with Jim Simkin), Family therapy (with Virginia Satir), Bioenercetics (with Alexander Lowen), Transactional Analysis (with Fanita English) to the German speaking countries. All these protagonists gave their first courses in Europe at the FPI and were runnig programs there and in the internatinal „one-month intensives“ which were organized every year since 1973 by the FPI on the island Dugi Otok at the Dalmatian Coast. But also famous behavior therapists like Frederik Kanfer and psychodramatists like Zerka Moreno, and co-founder of Gestalt Therapy, Lore Perls, came to teach.

In the same time Petzold kept his own approach in permanent development – offering since 1972 a four years program in „Integrative Therapy(IT). Teaching first psychology in Paris, then in Düsseldorf he was 1979 appointed professor in Amsterdam where he ist still teaching holding a university chair in psychology and in clinical movementtherapy/psychomotorics. 1981 the „European Academy of Psychosocial Health“ was founded with its spacious premises at the beautifull „Lake Bever“ near Düsseldorf, a state reconized training institute for the helping professions (Scientific director Dr. Petzold, medical director Dr. Heinl, director of traing, Dr. Sieper). The Integrative Therapy method was taught and practiced from 1972 onwards besides Germany in training programs and institutes in Austria, Swizzerland, the Scandinavian Countries, later in The Netherlands, Italy, Greece, Spain, New Zeeland. Since 1985 Integrative Therapy was taught in Yougoslavia, now with training programs, instituts resp. Associations in Slovenia and Croatia. Integrative Therapy programs with similar orientations developed also in the USA (J.Norcross, M. Goldfried a.o.). The „SEPI“, the „Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration), became the international organization for all clinicians and researchers interested in the „new integration paradigm“ in clinical psychology and psychotherapy editing the „Journal for Psychotherapy Integration“. In 1975 the Journal „Integrative Therapie“, the first one carrying this name, was founded by Petzold and famous Charlotte Bühler. The Quarterly had now its 25th aniversary. In 2000 the honour of a professor in „psychotraumatology“ was bestowed upon H.G. Petzold by the Donau-University in Krems, Austria. Having written and edited more than 40 books and authored by 600 scientific articles Petzold ist nowadays considered as one of the most profiled protagonists in European psychotherapy.

The „new integration paradigm“ became in the mean while a strong international movement in psychotherapy and clinical psychology with many brilliant clinicians and researchers adhering to it: Howard and Orlinsky, Bergin and Garfield, Wachtel, Norcross, Grawe, van der Kolk to name few.

 

The approach – core concepts of theory:

 

The Integrative Approach to therapy has a biopsychosocial position and a life span developmental as well as a context oriented view. It is following therefore a multiperspective complex paradigm, rooted in the longitudinal oriented „life or bio-sciences“ (biology, medicine with the important subspecialties neurosciences, psychiatry and immunology), in „scientific psychology“ (developmental, clinical, social) and in the clinically relevant „social sciences“ (clinical sociology, organizational science, supervision sciences, history of culture, political science). The background metatheory of such a multiperspective approach has to offer a sound basis in modern philosophy, i. e. in epistemological and anthropological views (with M. Merleau-Ponty, P. Ricoeur a. o.), in culture critcis with (M. Foucault, J. Derrida a. o.), and has to provide a clear position of general and professional ethics (E. Levinas, G. Marcel a.o.). The background in clinical theory has to be based on modern neurosciences relevant to psychotherapy (e.g. A. Damasio, J. LeDoux), on psychotherapy research (e.g. A. Bergin, K. Grawe, D. Orlinsky), psychiatry research (e.g. C. Nemeroff, B. van der Kolk) and on the wealth of contemporary psychology (particularly clinical, developmental, and social psychology).

The basic anthropological assumtion of IT - drawing on classical concepts in modern reformulationis a multiperspective view on the human being and his situation in the world (micro- and macrocontext) with the others, with his cosubjects, fellowmen and women, pointig out fife anthropological dimensions and three dimensions of personality.

 
The Model of Man – anthropological perspective, personality theory

 

The model of man in Integrative Therapy is grounded in the ontological assumption that „beeing is essentially cobeing“. It is therefore based on the reality of the „Other and the Self“ (G.H. Mead), on the „primacy of intersubjectivity“ (G. Marcel), on the „otherness of the other“ (E. Levinas).

The human being (man or whoman) is a body1-soul2-mind3-subject in a social4 and ecological context/continuum5. In the co-respondence with the Other and in the interaction with relevant enviroments he has the chance to constitute in a selfreflexive and discoursive developmental process over the life span a coherent SelfI a well functioning EgoII and consistent but flexible identityIII, i.e. a complex personality in varying life situations and social networks with different and changing qualities of life in general, and specifcally of health and disease, wellness and illness, happyness and distress, with experiences of despair, hope and of meaning always rooted profoundly in interpersonal relationships, in intersubjective co-respondence, in polylogues“ (Petzold 1970c).

 

With such a broad model of man, therapy cannot be seen as psychotherapy alone, reproducing the old occidental dualistic split of the „body-mind-problem“. Therefore we prefere the term „Humantherapie“ (Germ.) meaning: „therapy for, with, by and through the human being as a whole“(ibid.), working with all dimensions of the human existence:
1. Body“ -  is defined as the totality of all biological and physiological processes and the learning achieved by them, stored in the (mostly inaccessible or implicit) „body memory“ on an immunological and neuronal level. The bodily reality of the human being is requiring somato-therapy (soma, gr. body): body oriented methods (relaxation, breathing and running therapy, „eustress training“, “tension/conflict – solution“, „somatization reversal“ neoreichian techniques etc.) in order to influence or modify physiological/physical resp. psychophysiological reactions, patterns and (dysfunctional) modalities of body learning (e.g. chronified stress reactions).

2. Soul“ – is defined as the totality of all emotional, motivational, and volitional processes and the results of the emotional learning, stored in the (mostly implicite) „emotional memory“ of the limbic system and in the „scenic or episodic“ memory of the hippocampus (which can be also declarative). The psychic reality requires psycho-therapy (psyche, gr. soul), that is psychological methods (e.g. focusing, Gestalt, Psychodrama, active psychoanalysis in the Ferenczi-Tradition, creative methods of expression with colour and clay etc.) in order to influence or modify emotional reactions, patterns and (dysfunctional) modalities of emotional learning.

„3. Mind“ – is defined as the totality of all cognitive, reflexive and metareflexive processes and their results/products, i.e. knowledge, science, philosophy, arts, religion stored in the (mostly explicite, declarative) complex memory system (prefrontal cortex, hippocampus) of the individual, including also collective cognitions and memories from the cultural background. The mental reality requires noo-therapy (nous, gr. mind), cognitive behavioral but also metacognitive methods, interpretive/hermeneutic procedures, in order to influence or modify cognitive patterns and (dysfunctional) modalities of cognitive learning, e.g. appraisals, attributional styles, control parameters, coping strategies, creative methods to explore und express quests for meaning on a symbolic level etc.

4. Social context/continuum“ constitutes „social reality“ seen as the totality of all social influences relevant for the person and its social network (family, friends, colleagues) requires, if dysfunctional and destructive, as for example in the „scene“ of drug addicts or in violent families, socio-therapy, i.e. family counseling, social network therapy and  other interventions in order to influence or modify communication and interaction styles or patterns and (dysfunctional) modalities of social learning.

5. Ecological context/continuum“ constitutes „ecological reality seen as the totality of all (micro)ecological influences relevant for the person (flat, house, quarter, job environment). It requires, when these influences are detrimental or damaging microecological interventions as counseling, environmental modeling, setting reorganisation etc. based on the concepts of ecological psychology (J.J. Gibson, K.Lewin, U. Bronfenbrenner a.o.) in order to influence or modify ecological „affordances“ (Gibson), reaction patterns e.g. to ecological stress and (dysfunctional) modalities of ecological learning.

Contexts are always intertwinned with the continuum considered as the totality of influences in, by and through time on all the beforementioned fife dimensions: there are influences from the past (retrospective), from the presence (aspective) and from future anticipations (prospective). The continuum dimension requires a „life span developmental perspective“, a temporalization of the psychotherapeutic situation as a per definitionem processual reality, an interpersonal, intersubjective process to work on the results of biographic influences, to support the mangement of the patient‘s current problems, and to deal with threats that can be realistically expected (e.g. loss of job, of a partner, of health), with phantasmatic future anxieties, with (negative or dysfunctional) goals, plans, projects etc.

 

The Model of Personality

 
I. The Self is seen as the core of the person and considered to be the totality of all somatomotoric, perceptual, emotional, volitive and cognitve processes and patterns (schemata) operation in a given context. It is a synergem which is „more and something else than the sum of its parts“. Ontogenetically the oldest structural element (body self) of a lifelong developing „personality in contexts“ (in direction to a mature Self) it has the capacity to form an

II. Ego which is seen as a process function of the Self, more precisely a bundle or synergem of primary ego functions (sensing, feeling, memorizing, thinking, will, acting) and seondary ego functions (regulating, differenciating, integrating, valueing, creating, coping etc.) that can master internal and external/context-generated tasks and problems and is able in the interaction with the environment over the time to constitute

III. Identity which is (1) the synergy of social attributions (identifying: „We know and see him as Peter, a good husband/professional/baseball player etc.!), (2) their mental evaluation (cognitive appraisal by the prefrontal cortex, emotional valuation by the limbic system: „Are they right, is this true? ... husband/professional yes ..., baseball player no!), and (3) selfattributions (identification: „I know myself as Peter and see me as a good husband/professional ... no, I am not a good baseball player, not bad though!“) Identity as the highest ego-function is constituted in fife domains (I) body, (II) social network, (III) work and achievement, (IV) material securities (money, home, property), and (V) values. Since it is fundamentally rooted in social resp. Interactional processes, therapy has always to take the social situation („Lebenslage“) – good, precarious or destructive -, the social network over the time, i.e. the relevant „convoy“, into account, for they bear an sustantial influence on the identity and personality of the patient. Therapy is therefor never working with an individual but with the patient in his „social network“, even when it is only „virtually“ present in the therapy room

 
The life span  model of health and disease in clinical „developmental psychology“

 

Integrative Therapy is the first psychotherapeutic approach using the new paradigm of „life span developmental clinical psychology“ to which it contributed with research and theory forming. It is seeing health/creativity and illness/destructivity as a spectrum of behaviors in given mircro-, meso- and macrocontexts (the influence of which cannot be underestimated). Therefore in the line of modern health sciences and longitudinal studies one has to take into account the conditions for pathogenesis and for salutogenesis, risk factors and protective factors, deficits and resources on an individual (biological, genetic, biographical) and contextual level (economical, social, political situation), because only then there is a chance to understand the problems and disorders of the patients properly. For a healthy development the human being is needing multiple and adequate stimulation on all levels (perceptive, motoric, emotional, cognitive, communicative). It is needing a broad scope of experiences, rich sensory input, possibilities of free selfexpression, room for creative experimentation and for cocreative projects with other people. Pathology can develop through deficits (lack of stimulation, neglect), trauma (overstimulation, hurts), disturbances (unclear stimulation, confusion) and conflicts (antagonistic stimulation, fights). When one or more of these constellations are having a time extended influence on then human being, they are causing stress and strain that eventually may result in disorders or diseases, particularly when there is a genetic vulnerability, only poor resilience, and protective factors are missing. These pathogentic constellations are not only operating in early childhood but can have impacts over the whole life span , the same as salutogenentic stimulation (reassurance, care, comfort, appreciation, love, encouragement) can become effective at any time up to senescence. Thus health and disease, wounding and healing, psychological erosion and psychological development are lifelong influences coming from beneficial and detrimental enviroments, supportive or toxic „convoys“ as „social networks“ are called under a longitudinal perspective. Early childhood is important but with developmental psychopathology and longitudinal research Integrative Therapy affirms that it has less impact than assumed by the traditional psychoanalytic paradigm, which has no support from clinical developmental psychology. Consequently therapeutic interventions have a chance in every period of life, also in late adulthood or old age as long as therapists don‘t block their treatment effects by negative outcome expectations. The paradigm of psychophysiological disstress (and also parental neglect or negative family interaction is causing negative stress) is for the theory of pathology in IT of outmost importance in conjunction with the concept of positive stimulation and eustress. Chains of adverse events and chains of positive events „in interaction“, constructive life situations („Lebenslage“), rich in resources and potential, or precarious life situations, lacking resources but having plenty of risks, or even destructive environments, filled with violence, negativity and having deficits in every respect are the factors that have to be assessed in diagnosis and that have to be addressed by therapeutic measures. For this IT provides adequate strategies and a sophisticated choice of powerful intervention methods, drawing on the wealth and the experience of „one hundred years of psychotherapy“ in the different „shools“ and traditions that we have systematically explored, screened and „exploited“ for the sake of our patients.

On the gound of its nonreductionist „anthropological views“ the approach can be considered as a „Humantherapie“ (Germ. „therapy of the human beeing“), covering the whole domain of the „human condition“. It consequently has to be an integrative therapy: 1. working with the body by „body therapy“ and psychophysiological methods, 2. dealing with psychological problems and tasks by psychological methods and „psychotherapy“ techniques, and 3. working with mental problems and tasks using „nootherapy“ with cognitive approaches for cognitive problems, in existential questions however using „socratic dialogues“ and „narrative practice“. In problems concerning values, political and ethical positions e. g. methods of co-respondence, „dicourse and polylogue“, are applied. In spiritual and religious quests for  m e a n i n g  contemplation, meditation or tools of aesthic and symbolic expression from the creative arts therapies can be offered. 4. Social problems, e.g. unvarorable childhood, adolescent or adult socialisation, poor job situations, poverty issues etc. and 5. ecological problems as depressing living quarters, , violent surroundings, risky environments as pathogentic influences on one side or as lack of protective factors and ressources, as a deficit of salutogenetc influences on the other side, have to be addressed by „sociotherapy“, „microecological interventions“, and infrastructural programs. 6. All this has to be viewed in the „continuum of time“, of personal biography, presence and future, of collective history, actuallity and prospective developments.

 

On the basis of its „personality theory“ Integrative Therapy is centering on I. Self-processes (selfesteem, selfknowlege, selfsupport, selfassertiveness, sovereingty, sefdefeat, selfdoubts, selfdestruction etc.). II. It is working with Ego-processes (cognitive, emotional and socio-communicative flexibility, coping- and creating-capacities). III. It is working with situations and processes relevant for Identity, e.g. with unfavorable contexts, social networks, rich or poor in resources, with attributional styles, locus of control etc. through methods of body therapy, psychotherapy, nootherapy, and sociotherapy like familiy and social network interventions.

 

The methods, techniques and media of IT – core concepts of practice

 

The complexity of the IT approach offers a fascinating and nonreductionist view on the human condition. In order to base the concept „Humantherapie“ in the field of clinical knowlege and experience as it emerged during the development of modern psychotherapy, psychosocial methodologies and practices we were looking for „models, concepts and pragmatic strategies“, i.e. for „heuristics“ in these domains on several levels (macro, meso, micro). On the grounds of comparative studies on all the mainstream „schools“ of psychotherapy a number of important „heuristics“ have been identified and elaborated – among them four basic orientations of therapy:

1. It has a clinical orientation, which is curative and palliative, trying to restore health and/or to reduce pain and suffering by clinical methods and therapeutic interventions.

2. It has a salutogenetic orientation fostering health, wellness and fitness, health consciousness and an health-active lifestyle (and this is more than prevention) by couseling and health coacing.

3. It has an orientation on personality development, aiming to support and to stimulate the individual to use, to cultivate, and develop his/her resources and potential through selfexploration and systematic selfrealisation.

4. It is aiming at critical contribushion to culture for psychotherapy is an emancipatoric dicipline.

 

Concerning clinical praxeology „four wasy of healing and fostering“ are differentiated:

1.      Insight centered work to gain personal meaning

2.      Emotional differentiation and parenting strategies

3.      Experiential fostering of creativity and personal souvereignty

4.      Providing experiences of solidarity

 

Within this framework several moldalities can be used:

 

1. Exercise-centered/functional modality. In this style of working healthy functioning is fostert by trainig and systematic exercising e.g. awareness excercises, orientation training, relaxation, running or other forms of sport therapy, assertiveness training, role training and other behavioral strategies.

2. Experience-centered/stimulating modality. In this style of working creative media and forms of creativity enhancing methods are used to develop the potential of patients, to provide „alternative experiences“ and salutogenetic qualities on a cognitive, emotional an behavioral level by means of role playing, imagination, Gestalt methods etc.

3. Conflict-centered/uncovering modality. In this type of process oriented work unconscious conflicts, psychodynamic problems are uncovered and worked through, using strategies from active analysis, Gestalt therapy and Integrative focal therapy.

4. Network-oriented/supportive modality. It is used to find, mobilize and use resources and potential in the patient‘s social network and/or in agencies of psychosocial help. As IT is principally „therapy in context/coninnum“ network and life situations („Lebenslagen“) have to be included in the „therapeutic curriculum“, i.e. the strategy design and the intervention performance of therapy.

5. Medicaton supported modality. In many problems and disorders intervention by medication is indispensable, e.g. in major depression, in which a combination of the modalities 1, 3, 4 an 5 is indicated“.

Advanced process studies of current psychotherapy research have found a range of unspecific and specific „healing factors“. In IT on the basis the analysis of psychotherapy research studies and the evaluation of videotapes and transscripts of therapy sessions from various orientations in psychotherapy (psychodynamic, behavioral, client centered, psychodrama, Gestalt, body therapy). „14 healing factors“ were isolated and shall be briefly enumerated:

 

1. Empathetic understanding, 2. Emotional support and acceptance, 3. Help in the realistic masterig of practical difficulties in life, 4. Fostering emotional expression and volitive decisions, 5. Fostering insight and the experience of meaning, 6. Developing communicative competence and the ability to live relationships, 7. Fostering bodily awareness and the capacity of physical selfregulation e.g. by relaxation, 8. Fostering possibilities of leraning and the development of interest, 9. Providing creative experiences and stimulating creative productivity, 10. Opening up positive future perspectives and exspectancies, 11. Supporting the develoment of a positive value system and consolidating existential quests, 12. Supporting the development of a clear self and identity experience, 13. Fostering the development of supportive social networks, 14. Providing the experience of solidarity and empowerment.

Even when clinically working therapist are mainly concerned with the first basic orientation, they at least implicitely will touch the other three and the „14 healing factors“ are operational in all four basic orientations and can be found in the „Four Ways of Healing and Fostering.

The developments in modern global, intercultural and highly flexible societies will ask also from clinically working therapists more than their habitual scope of practice. New demands are arising and new services are developing, new markets are emerging. The psychotherapist of the future will work also as a „health counselor“ and a „personality coach“ for his patiens and clients. The Integrative Approach has seen this challenge for a long time and has developed tools for these tasks, teaching them within the clinical education for psychotheapists.

The broad approach of IT in the clinical orientation to the human being is asking for a fresh look on diagnostics, using and complementing the DSM-IV (e.g. with social network and life situation diagnosis, with body oriented views, with family system perspectives) and is demanding new ways in practice enlarging and enriching the repertoire of the classical approaches of psychotherapy. Over the decades a variety of methods and intervention techniques have been developed, others have been adapted in a noneclectic, theory grounded manner from the traditional or from innovative approaches in the field of psychotherapy: e.g. cognitive behavioral methods for dealing with anxiety disorders, psychodynamic approaches tho deal with depressions, Gestalt methods for assertiveness and selfvalue problems, psychodrama for social conflicts, body therapy for psychosomatic complaints. These influences and elements have been thorougly integrated into a „process oriented style“ of working „out of the interpersonal contact and encounter“, within a „healing therapeutic relationship“, using individual „dyadic“ therapy, therapeutic groups or interventions in natural enviroments as the home and family situation, e.g. by social network conferences. Training programs in IT are therefore designed to educate as well for treatment in the one-to-one relationship as for the group setting, offering training to become an individual and a group psychotherapist. Basic therapeutic attitudes and skills are necessary in building a productive therapeutic relationship and handling an effecive psychotherapeutic process by using transference and countertransference phenomena, resistance and defence but also by using coping and creating methods, strategies of enrichment and empowerment as general interventions, or as „disease specific“ treatment program (e.g. for PTSD-pations ore severe personality disorders). Experience activating emotional techniques from Gestalt Therapy are important tools (empty chair, awareness exercises, confrontation etc.). Psychodrama methods are used for resolving social conflicts or to prepare for difficult tasks in life (double ego technique, role reversal, scenic rearrangements etc.). Cognitive behavioral techniques are applied to treat anxieties, build up assertive behavior, to counter depressive cognitions of learned helplessness or to interrupt ruminating thoughts in the obsessive compulsive patient. For somatization and psychosomatic disorders a rich repertoire of methods and techniques has been developed in IT to „process“ somatized conflicts, to modify a „stress physiology“ turning it in the direction of a „wellness physiology“. Body charts and body scultures, self regulation and modern selfrelaxation techniques (IDR= Integrative and Differential Relaxation) are some of the devices to be namend. Since creativity and cocreativity are considered by IT as a strong healing and development fostering influence a lot of techniques and media from arts therapy, mouvement therapy, drama therapy have been selected, empirically and clinically evaluated, theoretically elaborated to fit in the conceptual and praxeological framework of the integrative approach for diagnostic (projective and semiprojective) and therapeutich purposes.

 

Empirical evaluation of Integrative Therapy and of the Training Program for Integrative Therapists and Supervisors

IT has brought together methods and treatment modalities in a „multimodal“ approach that were in themselves empirically evaluated for their effectivity. Metaanalytic studies have documented a wealth of methods and techniques in various therapeutic approaches that are worthwhile to exploit. In Integrative Therapy compatible approaches and techniques have been adapted and applied in an integrated processoriented way of working „out of the interpersonal relation“. This process as a whole has been evaluated with good results in several studies with several disorders and client groups. Psychotherapy must – whenever it is possible – be supported by empirical research. Most of the different methods and techniques applied in Integrative Therapy are grounded on empirical research for their effectivity. When methods are „incorporated“ in the repertoire of IT they are „made compatible“ by framing them into the basic assumption of „co-respondence“, the practice of „intersubjectivity“ and the priciple of „selfreflexivity“ and „discourse“. In this way the highly effective treatment methods developed by behavior therapy to treat anxiety disorders have been used together with and on the ground of biographical reflections and interpersonal encounter, i. e. within a framework wich is neither reductionistic nor technocratic. In the same line of thinking psychotherapy research is implemented in cooperation with the patients.

In the Integrative Approach a model of „Optimal Quality Management“ has been developed, establishing a „quality cycle“ which is combining. the evaluation of psychotherapy training, psychotherapy research and empirical studies on clinical supervison, the „EAG-Quality- System“: The training curiculum and the training program are permanently evaluated since 1974 (n= 1490 participants) in sophistcated studies. In the general evaluation the alumni consider the training as „very good“ and „good“ (Petzold, Steffan 2000b) on a fife point school notes scale. In 1997 to 1999 form all the courses given within the programs of the EAG 3995 evaluation forms gave results beween 80 and 95 % on all quality parameters (Petzold, Steffan, Zdunek 2000). From the many studies on the effectivity of Integrative Therapy (overview in Sponsel 1995) one is of particular interest. 59 therapist in private practice who gaduated from the EAG program as „integrative therapists“ participated with 211 patients with various disorders in a study on the effectivity of short term „Integrative Focal Therapy“ which a complex set of research instruments (fife points of measurement including a 6 month follow up, which showed stable results). The results turned out to be good and very good (Petzold, Hass, Märtens, Steffan 2000). Studies with PTSD-patients (Petzold, Wolf et al. 2000), with psychosomatic pain patients (Heinl 1997) or patients with major depressions (van der Mei, Petzold, Bosscher 1997) or addiction problems (Petzold, Scheiblich, Thomas 2000) have been sucessfully treated by trainig therapists and graduates of the EAG proving on this very concrete level that the education offered by the EAG is not only by the judgement of the alumni but by the results of their practical therapeutic work with patients highly efficient. Studies on the three years trainig program for clinical supervisors offered by the EAG are provided similar convincing results (Oeltze, Ebert, Petzold 2000 n= 68). A study for the Austrian Ministry of Science showed that the trainig program for clinical supervisors of the EAG resulted on the side of the participants in a considerable outcome in interventive competence (Schigl, Petzold 1997).nebt

in itsellf and1.2)Ois valution by These supervisors are again bringing their competence to the training program for therapist of  EAG and they are instrumental to assure and to develop the quality of the therapists in their clinical work. Internationally the „EAG Quality System“ evaluation the quality of training, therapy, and supervision of one program is unique in the field of psychotherapy and psychotherapy training on an international level.

 

To conclude

 

The field of psychotherapy is in permanent development. New clinical experiences, methodological innovations and research in the sciences relevant for psychotherapy but als outcome and process studies by psychotherapy resarchers themselves have created many new concepts and praxeologies, differential and integrative approaches that enlarge and often overcome the traditional approaches. Modern approaches of contemporative therapy are aware that therir dicipline is in processes of ongoing progress. Integrative therapy is striding her in the first line.

The Program, the Institution, Certification, National and International Recognition

 

 

Integrative Therapy (IT)

An Innovative Approach of „Biopsychosocial“ Psychotherapy

and Body Oriented Intervention

 

 

 

A Four Years Professional Training for Psychologists, Medical Doctors

and Academic Health Professions in: Individual and Group Psychotherapy,

 Body Methods, Family and Social Network Interventions

Offered by:

 

„European Academy of Psychosocial Health“ (EAG)

State recognized Academy of Professional Trainig, Düsseldorf, Germany

 

In Cooperation with:

Donau-University, Krems, Center of Psychosocial Medicine, Postgraduate Studies AU

Free University of Amsterdam, Center of Integrative Body Therapy, Postgraduate Studies NE

 

The Training Program:

 

The Training Program in „Integrative Therapy“ is operated by the EAG since 1972. It is offering professional trainig in modern research based psychotherapy und body oriented (psychophysiological) treatment for psychological and psychosmatic disorders to psychologists, medical doctors and academic health professionals. The curriculum is organized in bloc seminars (weekends und week residentials) with a „basic level program“ (1. and 2. year) and an „advanced level program“ (2. and 4. Year). The courses and seminars are given by an international staff of highly experienced clinical training therapists, researchers and clinical supervisors approved by the EAG, by the cooperating clinical university centers, and by the professional organizations in their countries. Through this a high standard of theoretical, methodological and clinical „know how transfer“ is possible on an European and international level.

 

The Program, the Institution, Certification, National and International Recognition

 

The program in Serbia is offered by the „European Academy of Psychosocial Health“ (EAG), Düsseldorf and Hückeswagen, a state recognized institution for professional training in the helping and socials. It is offering training in adult and children psychotherapy since 1972 in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The main orientation of the psychotherapy program is „Integrative Therapy“. Integrative Therapy and the training program for psychotherapists offered by the EAG is recognized by the German and the Swiss Federal Associations of Psychologists (BDP and FSP) and gives access to the cantonal registration as a psychotherapist in Switzesland and the federal registration in the frame of the Austrian Psychotherapy law. The programe thus meets the standards and requirements of the professional organisations for clinical psychologists and psychotherapists in relevant European Countries. It is operated in cooperation with the „Center of Psychosocial Medicine“ of the Donau-University in Krems, Austria, which is offering the same curriculum in Integrative Therapy for medical doctors with the Austrian Chamber of Medical Doctors. Docents and teaching therapists of the program of the Donau-University will teach in the Serbian Education offered by the EAG. The second cooperation partner is the „Center of Integrative Body Therapy“ (Center of IBT), Free University of Amsterdam, specialized in offering postgraduate trainig in body oriented therapy. The training program was originally developed by the „Center of IBT“ and will be supervised by the responsible Professor from the „Center of IBT“ Dr. Hilarion Petzold.

The the participants which have successfully completed the program in „integrative therapy“ (individual and group psychotherapy) will receive the graduation by the EAG in cooperation with the above mentioned partner centers.

The have the possiblility to obtain on the ground of their trainig in Integrative Therapy  in an additional program of modules after writing a thesis the University Degree of a „Masters of Advanced Studies“ (MAS) in „Clinical Supervision“ from the Donau-Univerity, Krems or the equivalent degree of a „Diplom-Supervisor“ (Dipl.Sup.) of the Free University Amsterdam.

 

Summary
This text is offering a concise presentation of „Integrative Therapy“ as a basic approach of a differential and integrating „Therapy of the Human Being“, i.e. psychotherapy, bodytherapy, nootherapy, sociotherapy and ecological intervention with its methods of creative therapy (art-, music-, poetrytherapy). Briefly anthropology, developmental and personality theory, theory of health and disease are repesented as well as the structure of education and the professional trainig programme.
 
 
Zusammenfassung

Dieser Text bietet in englischer Sprache eine kompakte Darstellung der „Integrativen Therapie“ als Verfahren differentieller und integrierender „Humantherapie“, d.h. der Psychotherapie, Leibtherapie, Nootherapie, Soziotherapie, ökologischer Intervention mit ihren Methoden kreativer Therapie z.B. Kunst-, Musik-, Poesietherpie) . Anthropologie; Entwicklungs- und Persönlichkeitstheorie, Gesundheits- und Krankheitslehre und die Struktur der Ausbilung werden kurze dargestellt.

Literatur

 

Heinl, H. (1997): Ein integriertes Kurzzeit-Gruppenpsychotherapiemodell zur Behandlung chronischer psychosomatischer Schmerzsyndrome. Integrative Therapie 3, 316-330.

van der Kolk, B.A., McFarlane, A.C., Weisaeth, L. (eds.): Traumatic Stress. The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and society. New York: The Guilford Press 1996.

van der Mei, S., Petzold, H.G., Bosscher, R. (1997). Runningtherapie, Streß, Depression - ein übungszentrierter Ansatz in der Integrativen leib- und bewegungsorientierten Psychotherapie, Integrative Therapie 3  374-428.

Oeltze, J., Ebert, W., Petzold, H.G. (2000). Die Wirksamkeit Integrativer Supervision in Ausbildung und Praxis – eine Evaluationsstudie zur Qualitätsentwicklung im EAG-Qualitätssicherungssystem. Düsseldorf: FPI-Publikationen.

Petzold, H.G., 1970c. Thérapie du mouvement, training relaxatif, thymopratique et éducation corporelle comme integration, Paris; auszugsweise dtsch. in: (1992b) 841 ff.

Petzold, H.G. (1998a): Integrative Supervision, Meta-Consulting & Organisationsentwicklung. Modelle und Methoden reflexiver Praxis. Ein Handbuch. Band I. Paderborn: Junfermann.

Petzold, H. (2002a): Integrative Therapie. 3 Bde. Paderborn: Junfermann.

Petzold, H.G., Hass, W., Märterns, M., Steffan, A.. (2000): Wirksamkeit Integrativer Thersapie in der Praxis -Ergebnisse einer Evaluationsstudie im ambulanten Setting. Integrative Therapie 2/3, 277-355.

Petzold, H.G., Scheiblich, W., Thomas, G. (2000): Psychotherapeutische maßnahmen bei Drogenabhängigkeit. In: Uchtenhagen, A., Zieglgänsberger, W. (Hg.), Suchtmedizin. München: Urban & Fischer, 322-341.

Petzold, H.G., Steffan, A. (2000b): Ausbildungsevaluation und Qualitätssicherung in der Integrativen Therapie – das EAG-Qualitätssicherungssystem. Integrative Therapie 2/3, 355 – 367

Petzold, H.G., Steffan, A. (2000b): Ausbildungsevaluation und Qualitätssicherung in der Integrativen Therapie – das EAG-Qualitätssicherungssystem. Integrative Therapie 2/3, 355 – 367

Petzold, H.G., Steffan, A., Zdunek, K. (2000). Qualitätssicherung in der Ausbildung von Integrativer Psychotherapie an FPI/EAG: Dargestellt an Ergebnissen einer Veranstaltungsevaluation im EAG-Qualitätssystem. (Quality Measurement of Psychotherapy. Results of a Training Programme Evaluation in the EAG Quality System). Integrative Therapie, 1, 96-117.

Petzold, H.G., Wolf, U., Landgrebe, B., Josic, Z., Steffan, A. (2000): Integrative Traumatherapie – Modelle und Konzepte für die Behandlung von Patienten mit „posttraumaitischer Belastungsstörung“. In: van der Kolk, B., McFarlane, A., Weisaeth, L.: Traumatic Stress. Paderborn: Junfermann, 445-579.

Schigl, B., Petzold, H.G. (1997). Evaluation einer Ausbildung in Integrativer Supervision mit Vertiefungsschwerpunkt für den klinisch-geriatrischem Bereich - ein begleitendes Forschungsprojekt, Integrative Therapie 1-2, 85-145.

 


 

*Aus der Europäischen Akademie für psychosoziale Gesundheit, Hückeswagen, dem Zentrum für IBT, Freie Universität Amsterdam, dem Institut, St. Denis, Paris, Lehrstuhl für „Klinische Philosophie und Psychologie“ (Prof. Dr. H.G. Petzold), und dem Zentrum für psychosoziale Medizin (Leitung Dr. Anton Leitner), Studiengang Supervision, Donau-Universität Krems.


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